Religion A central tenet of Inupiat religion was that the forces of nature were essentially malevolent. Rates of accident, homicide and suicide among the Inuit are far higher than among the general Alaskan population.
This spirit often took the shape of a land animal, into whose shape the shaman would change him or herself. Her masks often speak of the split personality of Natives growing up in two cultures. While there are some allegations that Inuit were hostile to early French and English explorers, fishers and whalers, more recent research suggests that the early relations with whaling stations along the Labrador coast and later James Bay were based on a mutual interest in trade.
As noted earlier, many attempts were made to replace diminished natural resources, including the importation of reindeer and the trapping of foxes for fur.
The Inuit began to emerge as a political force in the late s and early s, shortly after the first graduates returned home. Another health issue, particularly for the Inuit of the Cape Thompson region, is cancer, brought on by the dumping of 15, pounds of nuclear waste by the Atomic Energy Commission.
Thus, dance took on both a secular and religious significance to the Inuit. Beginning in the s, federal and territorial governments also worked to establish Inuktitut language programs, though for some, justification was partly based on the assumption that establishing such educational traditions would facilitate transition to English or French.
Structurally, Greenland is an extension of the Canadian Shieldthe rough plateau of the Canadian north that is made up of hard Precambrian rocks. During the winter, the Inuit lived in igloos, which were erected separately or connected by tunnels.
The culture and technology of Inuit society that served so well in the Arctic were not suited to subarctic regions, so they did not displace their southern neighbors. This comprehensive land claims settlement for Quebec Inuit, along with a large cash settlement and substantial administrative autonomy in the new region of Nunavik, set the precedent for the settlements to follow.
He founded the Northwest Alaska Native Association and was instrumental in the development of the Red Dog Lead and Zinc Mine in northwest Alaska, the second largest zinc mine in the world. However, English is the primary language of the region. He learned carving techniques from masters such as George Ahgupuk and Wilber Walluk, and by age 14 he was already supporting himself with his carving.
These areas provided rich feeding grounds for bowhead whale.
However, due to men being required to sometimes travel large distances to obtain food the division was not absolute. His interpretations of Alaskan myth often appear in his art.
Due to trade, the Inuit could acquire goods of the European-Canadian civilization, such as weapons and ammunition, tobacco, coffee, tea, sugar and flour. Beyond that, however, there was little control exerted on proper behavior in traditional Inuit society. Rock became the editor of a newsletter formed to educate other Inuit about the dangers.
The artefacts left by the Thule generally suggests that they led a more comfortable lifestyle and had leisure time to artistically decorate their personal effects- their art was not the result of social or economic anxieties.
In addition, the generally Protestant missionaries of the British preached a moral code very different from the one the Inuit had as part of their tradition. Inthe AEC requested some square miles of land near Point Hope to create a deep-water port using an atomic explosion many times more powerful than that at Hiroshima.
Anthropologists have discerned several different cultural epochs that began around the Bering Sea. Collins determined that, based on the ruins found at Native Pointthe Sadlermiut were likely the last remnants of the Dorset culture, or Tuniit. He founded the Northwest Alaska Native Association and was instrumental in the development of the Red Dog Lead and Zinc Mine in northwest Alaska, the second largest zinc mine in the world.
During this period Denmark tried gradually to acclimatize the Greenlanders to the outside world without exposing them to the danger of economic exploitation. Politics and Government Traditional Inuit maintained a large degree of individual freedom, surprising in a society that depended greatly on cooperative behavior for survival.
In the following years, up to 10, whalers would annually pass the coast of Greenland and substantially influence the culture of the Thule living there. Both parties were awarded 11 of the 31 legislative seats, but Kielsen arranged a new governing coalition with two smaller partners, the Demokratiit party four seats and the Atassut Party two seats.
Inuit such as the Nunatamiut Uummarmiutwho inhabited the Mackenzie River delta area, often engaged in warfare.
Seal pelts are tanned and used domestically as well as exported, but, due to import bans on seal fur, the international price level is at a minimum. Yet, trapping led to an increased breakdown of traditional cooperative ways of life.
Invitations were usually the result of a wish for continued or improved trading relations with the community in question. At the turn to the 20th century, most Inuit still lived in hide tents during the summer.In traditional Inuit society the healing of the sick was the responsibility of the shaman or a ngakok, who contacted spirits by singing, dancing, and drum beating.
He would take on the evil spirit of the sick. Shamans, however, proved helpless against the diseases brought by the Europeans and Americans.
Unlike many aboriginal cultures, traditional Inuit society was not based on the tribal unit. Instead, the basic social unit was the extended family, consisting of a man and wife and their unmarried children, along with their married sons and their families.
Upcoming Inuit Art Society Annual Meetings Our annual meetings feature native Inuit artists from Canada, knowledgeable speakers about Inuit art and culture, field trips to private collections, a museum or other relevant points of interest, and always ample time to meet other Inuit art enthusiasts.
Greenland offers a large selection of vocational and teacher-training programs, and there is a small university, Ilisimatusarfik (founded as the Inuit Institute in ). Nevertheless, many students attend university outside Greenland, especially in Denmark.
The Inuit’s view of life Belief in spirits and myths has permeated the Inuit mindset and has helped sustain life and social order. This was the answer to the question of life and its many mysteries given by an old man from East Greenland who lived many years ago.
Unlike many aboriginal cultures, traditional Inuit society was not based on the tribal unit.
Instead, the basic social unit was the extended family, consisting of a man and wife and their unmarried children, along with their married sons and their families.Download