Chapters 6—12, First examples of moral virtues[ edit ] Aristotle now deals separately with some of the specific character virtues, in a form The nichomacean ethics to the listing at the end of Book II, starting with courage and temperance.
The pleasure of drawing, for example, requires both the development of drawing ability and an object of attention that is worth drawing.
Aristotle says that such cases will need to be discussed later, before the discussion of Justice in Book V, which will also require special discussion.
The highest human good, then, is that activity that is an end in itself. Pleasure accompanies and perfects our activities. And such virtue will be good, beautiful and pleasant, indeed Aristotle asserts that in most people different pleasures are in conflict with each other while "the things that are pleasant to those who are passionately devoted to what is beautiful are the things that are pleasant by nature and of this sort are actions in accordance with virtue".
To call something a pleasure is not only to The nichomacean ethics a state of mind but also to endorse it to others.
It makes no difference whether the activities themselves are the ends of the actions, or something else apart from the activities, as in the case of the sciences just mentioned. He states that people would have to be unconscious not to realize the importance of allowing themselves to live badly, and he dismisses any idea that different people have different innate visions of what is good.
But let us discuss these matters elsewhere; an objection to what we have said, however, may be discerned in the fact that the Platonists have not been speaking about all goods, and that the goods that are pursued and loved for themselves are called good by reference to a single Form, while those which tend to produce or to preserve these somehow or to prevent their contraries are called so by reference to these, and in a secondary sense.
Poverty, isolation, and dishonor are normally impediments to the exercise of virtue and therefore to happiness, although there may be special circumstances in which they are not. Aristotle also mentions two other possibilities that he argues can be put aside: How can we persuade a person in a state like this to change his ways?
But it is possible to be very angry without going to this extreme, and Aristotle does not intend to deny this. A person who is not virtuous will often find his or her perceptions of what is most pleasant to be misleading. But of course Aristotle does not mean that a conflicted person has more than one faculty of reason.
Aristotle says that it admits of being shared by some sort of learning and taking pains. In what sense it is distinct from the other elements does not concern us. If there are several virtues then the best and most complete or perfect of them will be the happiest one.
So much for these questions. The cause of this deficiency lies not in some impairment in their capacity to reason—for we are assuming that they are normal in this respect—but in the training of their passions.
But what is not inevitable is that our early experience will be rich enough to provide an adequate basis for worthwhile ethical reflection; that is why we need to have been brought up well.
Of the remaining goods, some must necessarily pre-exist as conditions of happiness, and others are naturally co-operative and useful as instruments. We seek a The nichomacean ethics understanding of the objects of our childhood enthusiasms, and we must systematize our goals so that as adults we have a coherent plan of life.
At the same time, he is acutely aware of the fact that reasoning can always be traced back to a starting The nichomacean ethics that is not itself justified by further reasoning. When then should we not say that he is happy who is active in accordance with complete virtue and is sufficiently equipped with external goods, not for some chance period but throughout a complete life?
Virtue too is distinguished into kinds in accordance with this difference; for we say that some of the virtues are intellectual and others moral, philosophic wisdom and understanding and practical wisdom being intellectual, liberality and temperance moral.
The human types and problems he discusses are familiar to everyone. Certainly the future is obscure to us, while happiness, we claim, is an end and something in every way final. These analogies can be taken to mean that the form of akrasia that Aristotle calls weakness rather than impetuosity always results from some diminution of cognitive or intellectual acuity at the moment of action.
Even faced with great misfortune, a good person will bear himself or herself well and will not descend into mean-spiritedness. Amusements will not be absent from a happy life, since everyone needs relaxation, and amusements fill this need. Aristotle does not elaborate on what a natural state is, but he obviously has in mind the healthy condition of the body, especially its sense faculties, and the virtuous condition of the soul.
Concerning honor, pleasure, and intelligence nous and also every virtue, though they lead to happiness, even if they did not we would still pursue them.Building on the strengths of the first edition, the second edition of the Irwin Nicomachean Ethics features a revised translation (with little editorial intervention), expanded notes (including a summary of the argument of each chapter), an expanded Introduction, and a revised glossary.
Our discussion will be adequate if it has as much clearness as the subject-matter admits of, for precision is not to be sought for alike in all discussions, any more than in all the products of the crafts.
Now fine and just actions, which political science investigates, admit of much variety and. The Nicomachean Ethics (/ ˌ n ɪ k oʊ ˈ m æ k i ə n /; Ancient Greek: Ἠθικὰ Νικομάχεια) is the name normally given to Aristotle's best-known work on dominicgaudious.net work, which plays a pre-eminent role in defining Aristotelian ethics, consists of ten books, originally separate scrolls, and is understood to be based on notes from his lectures at the Lyceum.
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The specific requirements or preferences of your reviewing publisher, classroom teacher, institution or organization should be applied. The Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle's most important study of personal morality and the ends of human life, has for many centuries been a widely-read and influential book.
Though written more than 2, years ago, it offers the modern reader many valuable insights into human needs and conduct. Among. Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle, part of the Internet Classics Archive.Download